The challenges facing central and eastern Europe (CEE) in securing cyberspace will be familiar to cyber-security specialists from around the world, but because of its unique history and proximity to Russia, it faces a number of individual challenges as well, challenges that leaders are addressing through the creation of regional cooperation groups.
How successful that will be - in the face of an enemy with many faces which are quick to adapt their strategies in response to new security tactics - will take years to assess.
CYBERSEC 2016 in Krakow, Poland brought together speakers from the CEE region, wider Europe and the rest of the world to focus in on these challenges, which the conference divided into four streams: military, business, state and future.
We caught up with some of the speakers from the various sessions to get their assessment of the challenges and their view on the achievements of the conference.
First up is an interview with Jamie Shea and Nigel Inkster.
Jamie Shea is NATO Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges. He has been working with NATO since 1980. Positions included Director of Policy Planning in the Private Office of the Secretary General, Deputy Assistant Secretary General for External Relations, Public Diplomacy Division, Director of Information and Press, Spokesman of NATO and Deputy Director of Information and Press, Deputy Head and Senior Planning Officer in the Policy Planning and Multilateral Affairs Section of the Political Directorate as well as Assistant to the Secretary General of NATO for Special Projects.
Nigel Inkster, working at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) since 2007, is currently Director of Future Conflict and Cyber Security. His research portfolio at IISS has included transnational terrorism, insurgency, transnational organised crime, cyber security, intelligence and security and the evolving character of conflict. He has written and broadcast on all these topics and has also been engaged in a variety of para-diplomatic activities on behalf of the UK government including leading a Sino-UK Track 1.5 Cyber Security Dialogue. He is one of the authors of an IISS Strategic Dossier on the Evolution of the Cyber Domain published in 2015, has written a chapter on The Chinese Intelligence Agencies: Evolution and Empowerment in Cyberspace in China and Cyber Security (Oxford University Press 2015) and is the author of an IISS Adelphi book entitled China's Cyber Power published in June 2016 by Routledge.
Before joining IISS he served for thirty-one years in the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) retiring at the end of 2006 as Assistant Chief and Director of Operations and Intelligence.
In the second video on the military stream, we interview the chair of the military stream discussion panel, Kim Zetter. She is an award-winning journalist who covers cyber-security, cyber warfare, privacy and civil liberties. She has been covering computer security since 1999, first for PC World magazine then for WIRED, and has three times been voted one of the top 10 security reporters in the US by her journalism peers and security industry professionals. She is author of Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon.
And in our final video, we speak to Noemi Malska and John Davies about setting up cooperative groups to tackle cyber-security issues collaboratively.
Malska gathered experience in the cyber-security area and in international business during her contract at the Federation of Israeli Chambers of Commerce at the International Relations Department (Tel-Aviv). Besides holding a position of a Chairman of Supervisory Board at the innovative Polish-Romanian cyber security start-up, she is also an expert at the seed fund Startup HUB Poland and a member of the board (COO) of one of their investment portfolio companies HiProMine S.A. She graduated from Wroclaw University of Technology (faculty of computer science and management) and from European Academy of Diplomacy.
John Davies is Managing Director of Pervade Software, an independent software vendor with strong roots in the capital of Wales who's products are used in over 80 countries. John is the co-founder and chair of the South Wales Cyber Security Cluster and a member of the Executive Committee of Airbus Group Endeavr Wales, a joint venture between Airbus, Welsh Government and Universities in the role of Small Business Champion.