As we all know, cyber-security is rarely out of the news and this won't change given estimates that by 2019, an additional 4.5 million cyber-security experts will be needed worldwide.
Our own research amongst SMEs found that 76 percent of companies are concerned about cyber-security, with 17 percent having experienced a cyber-attack.
Our biggest observation when we discuss ‘cyber-security' is often not ‘computer security' but ‘people security'. Whilst companies can have the very best tech in place and invest heavily in new systems, the fact is that around a third of data security issues are people-based.
Data is scarce but, in 2014, a cyber-claims study found that over a third (34 percent) of claims for data loss was down to people security, with 11 percent of the dataset being rogue employees; 10 percent for lost or stolen laptop devices; and 13 percent for staff mistakes. Add to this a further five percent for improper data collection, and almost four out of 10 (39 percent) of the claims are because of the user.
Many organisations protect themselves from the usual business-critical blunders by having any potential issues covered off in the employee's employment contract and the company's policies and procedures. However, this is often not the case with data loss, as it is often not given the same priority as other ‘serious' employment issues, such as inappropriate sexual or racial behaviour or financial misconduct. Organisations do need to make sure they have robust policies covering cyber/data security, data protection and IT and communications - policies which are communicated to employees who are made fully familiar with the rules and processes they are required to follow. Failure to ensure that data security is protected can put individuals at risk, cause them harm and distress, and result in a loss of reputation and prosperity to organisations. The UK Information Commissioner has the right to levy fines of up to £500,000 for a serious breach of the data protection principles. The corporate fallout and financial implications can often be much more severe and broader in nature when cyber- or data- issues are involved. As the data controller the organisation is responsible for making sure the confidentiality of the data they process is preserved.
From a legal and HR perspective a business must also ensure that it has a social media policy in place which receives equal prominence within an organisation to other HR policies. Companies should put the social media policy in place, to provide employees with enforceable guidelines on:
- The company's level of tolerance for personal use of social networking services;
- Details of what constitutes business damaging social media which is not illegal;
- How the company will handle situations where employees post inappropriate and potentially business damaging, but not unlawful, posts such as illicit photos, profanity or other potentially derogatory content;
- How the company will monitor compliance with the policy; and
- The sanctions imposed for any breach of the policy and the procedure through which those sanctions will be enforced.
The social media policy is in addition to having HR policies covering cyber/data security and a data protection policy that will cover the myriad of issues that a company might face, such as data-handling, storage, transportation etc.
The key is that employees must understand that they are required to comply with these policies and that a breach of any of the policies is an HR issue that could ultimately lead to dismissal. This is critical for any business, as although the legal framework is still being developed, it is clear that businesses can face public and private claims for breach of cyber-security. The security provisions in the Data Protection Act 1998 have been interpreted by the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) to include cyber-space and to contain a duty for cyber-security to protect personal data from cyber-crime. Complying with the seventh data protection principle requires an organisation to have appropriate technological and organisational measures in place to prevent personal data being lost, damaged or stolen. The ICO has heavily fined companies that have been hacked, and a failure to protect confidential information due to a lack of adequate cyber-security can also be a breach of the common law duty of care, therefore amounting to negligence.
Despite the fact that the legal framework is currently unclear, the standard that the law will apply is the consensus of opinion in the professions and industry about what constitutes good practice. For example, laptop computers holding sensitive personal data should be encrypted. Mobile telephones containing confidential data should also be passcode protected.
ISO 27001: 2013, which sets a standard for security management systems, is regularly cited by the ICO in enforcement decisions and regulatory guidance, and deals with such matters as Human Resource security.
The responsibility for monitoring and reviewing the operation of all cyber-security policies and making recommendations for change to minimise risks should lie jointly with HR and the head of the IT department, or someone in a similar position. In addition, according to the Data Protection Act, any data controller must take reasonable steps to ensure the reliability of any employees who have access to personal data. Policies should be reviewed regularly to ensure that they meet legal requirements and reflect best practice in this ever changing and evolving area.
However, IT and human resources management need to be trained thoroughly on the appropriate and effective monitoring of employees, and enforcement of the various company policies, restrictions, guidelines and contract provisions relating to social media and cyber- and data- security. This should be done in compliance with employees' privacy rights. This is important as employees who breach any of the policies may be subject to disciplinary action up to and including termination of employment.
Contributed by Katherine Maxwell, partner and head of employment, Moore Blatch