France's former head of the external intelligence service this summer confirmed a French cyber-campaign that targeted Iran, Canada, Spain, Greece, Norway and other nations.
The incidents had been widely reported but were never confirmed by French officials, that is until Bernard Barbier, former head of the French General Board of External Security (DGSE), spoke at French engineering university CentraleSupélec.
His recorded comments were posted on YouTube and later published in the French newspaper Le Monde.
Barbier told students at the event that he discovered the NSA had probed computers at the Elysée Palace, the official residence of the French president. He also discussed the surveillance malware ‘Babar' which was previously reported to have been used in espionage campaigns by the French government.
In 2014, Barbier joined Sogeti, a Paris-based subsidiary of the technology consulting firm Capgemini Group, as a special advisor on cyber-security.