Alleged cyber-hacker Lauri Love, 31, appeared at Westminster Magistrates' Court on Tuesday in attempts to fight extradition to America for supposed attacks against the US Army, Federal Reserve Bank and the FBI in 2012 and 2013.

The National Crime Agency (NCA) seized data from computers using section 49 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA) to convince Love to hand over encryption keys and passwords, but he refused. Officers made an application as part of civil proceedings to force him to hand over passwords.

Love's representation, Stephen Cragg QC, said the application raises questions in respect to the right to respect for a private life and right to enjoyment of private property.” He is suing the NCA for the return of the seized computers and hard drives.

“There is a concern that the NCA is seeking in this application to access Mr Love's data by the back door rather than by the route sanctioned by Parliament in RIPA,”Cragg continued.

Love was arrested in Suffolk in October 2013 for alleged offences under the UK's Computer Misuse Act 1990. The NCA claimed that evidence of hacking was seen on Love's computer screen during the original arrest.

The extradition hearing will be held on 28 June and 29 June.